Gunung kawi temple is one of the greatest temple in Bali. It’s an archaeological site in the form of the temple were carved on the walls of the rock cliff Pakerisan River. The road leading to it passed through rice terraces.
Historically, Gunung Kawi Temple Tampaksiring is sthana / shrine of king Anak Wungsu. Anak Wungsu is the son of King Udayana.
King Udayana Gunapriya Dharmapattni had three sons namely Airlangga, Marakata and Anak Wungsu. Airlangga as the eldest son eventually became King of Kediri in East Java. While Marakata and Anak Wungsu forward throne of King Udayana in Bali.
After King Udayana died, the throne was replaced by Marakata in the year 1025. Then after Marakata, throne succeeded by his brother Anak Wungsu(1049 to 1080). These Kings are death in Temple Gunung Kawi Tampaksiring.
On the wall of the temple found Kwadrat Kediri writing that reads “Haji Lumah Ing jalu” which means “king in Jalu”. While the second temple are the words “Nak Rwa ira” which means “his two sons”.
In the inscription Tengkulak to the year 945 Saka (1023) tells about the state of the Hermitage (Kantyangan) Amarawati located around Pakerisan River. Its referred to the tablets was the temple area of Gunung Kawi Tampaksiring.
Besides, as a place of worship for the ancestors, Gunung Kawi Temple, the center of spiritual and religious training.
On the South side there Campuhan Gunung Kawi which is a meeting between two streams namely Pakerisan River and Moon River.
Until now, people still believe in and take advantage of holy water / Pura Tirta contained in Gunung Kawi for the purposes of religious ceremonies.